Psychological Bulletin, Learning is hypothesized to occur both as a result of one's own behavior enactive learning and as a result of viewing others behavior' observation learning Huesmann, It proposes that testosterone is linked to aggression when it is beneficial for reproduction, such as in mate guarding and preventing the encroachment of intrasexual rivals.
Is there a causal relationship between alcohol use and violence? It is much more difficult to alter aggressive behaviors when they are part of an adult personality, than when they are still in development.
How do I intervene with a hostile-aggressive student? Does this research evidence mean that aggression is somehow contained in alcohol? Before discussing some effective methods for reducing aggression, two ineffective methods need to be debunked: catharsis and punishment.
You can see that this definition rules out some behaviors that we might normally think are aggressive. Human aggression 2nd ed.