Social cognition and health belief behaviours

Aspirations pertaining to lifestyle, employment and education are cognitions or beliefs but are not included in behaviour-specific social cognition models such as the HBM and the TPB. These data indicate that social structure measures should to be investigated in addition to cognitions when modelling antecedents of behaviour, including condom use.

Resources to Learn More Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means Document Research article that examines social cognitive theory in the context of health promotion and disease prevention.

Health belief model pdf

It is frequently used to guide behavior change interventions. Where current job was provided this was coded, otherwise last job was used. Direct unmediated gender effects have also been reported in relation to adolescent and student condom use, controlling for health-related cognitions [ 31—33 ]. Expectations: Determining the outcomes of behavior change. So that high scores indicated lower occupation-based SES. Young people are vulnerable to acquisition of sexually transmitted infections because they generally have higher numbers of sexual partners and higher frequency of partner change than older people. The SCT can be used to understand the influence of social determinants of health and a person's past experiences on behavior change. Ignoring social structure effects on health behaviours may result in limited models of modifiable antecedents which may, in turn, result in behaviour change interventions that do not adequately address important determinants of health behaviour [ 9 ]. The present study was designed to systematically test the impact of SES, gender and aspirations on cognitions and condom use, thereby exploring the utility of employing more inclusive models of the antecedents of health behaviour. Yet even small proportions of explained behavioural variance can begin to elucidate how social structure shapes cognition and behaviour [ 6 , 8 ]. The TPB proposes that intention e. Most students were not sexually active and could not provide data on consistency of condom use. Hypotheses The study tested three hypotheses. Higher PBC can bolster intention because we are not generally motivated to perform tasks at which we will fail. An area-based measure of deprivation was constructed based on deprivation category scores for Scottish postcode sectors ranging from 1 most affluent to 7 most deprived.

Table I. Where current job was provided this was coded, otherwise last job was used. It is frequently used to guide behavior change interventions. In this trial, 12 non-denominational state schools within 15 miles of two major cities in Scotland were randomly allocated to the control arm and received no intervention.

The health belief model and personal health behavior

For example, in a study of the uptake of cervical screening, health beliefs were found to entirely mediate the effects of social class [ 26 ] but marital status was found to have an unmediated direct effect on attendance. SES may also represent environmental differences which alter or moderate relationships between cognitions and health-related behaviour patterns. An area-based measure of deprivation was constructed based on deprivation category scores for Scottish postcode sectors ranging from 1 most affluent to 7 most deprived. Thus, while social structure measures are often not included in models of the antecedents of health behaviour, available evidence suggests that these variables, including measures of lifestyle aspirations, may have important unmediated effects on health behaviours and may moderate cognition—behaviour relationships. Moreover, between and , the proportion of young people reporting two or more sexual partners in the previous year and also using condoms inconsistently increased, despite a number of national public health campaigns to reduce unsafe sex among young people [ 48 ], and in , more than 40 under year-olds conceived in England alone; the highest rates in Western Europe. The SCT can be used to understand the influence of social determinants of health and a person's past experiences on behavior change. A range of social cognition models have been developed to represent how evaluations of anticipated action outcomes, perceived social approval and perceptions of control can shape individual cognition and behaviour for overviews, see Abraham et al.

For example, in a study of the uptake of cervical screening, health beliefs were found to entirely mediate the effects of social class [ 26 ] but marital status was found to have an unmediated direct effect on attendance. Full trial details are provided elsewhere [ 5253 ]. The present study was designed to systematically test the impact of SES, gender and aspirations on cognitions and condom use, thereby exploring the utility of employing more inclusive models of the antecedents of health behaviour.

Procedure The questionnaire was tested and improved in five pilot schools over 2 years, involving analyses of questionnaires as well as transcripts of interviews and discussion groups.

health belief model application examples

Direct and indirect effects of occupational status, income and gender and an indirect mediated effect of education have been reported for appointment keeping at an inner-city hypertension clinic [ 28 ].

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Extending social cognition models of health behaviour