Scientific and critical thinking was not discovered and developed by scientists that honor must go to ancient Hellenistic philosophers, such as Aristotle, who also are sometimes considered the first scientistsbut scientists were the ones to bring the practice of critical thinking to the attention and use of modern society in the 17th and 18th centuriesand they are the most explicit, rigorous, and successful practitioners of critical thinking today.
The influx of ancient texts caused the Renaissance of the 12th century and the flourishing of a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism in western Europewhich became a new geographic center of science.
Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Although implied, hypothesis should express predicted direction of expected results [e.
Skeptics have open minds, but not so open that their brains fall out: they resist believing something in the first place without adequate evidence or reason, and this attribute is worthy of emulation.
Scientists must choose which problems to work on, they decide how much time to devote to different problems, and they are often influenced by cultural, social, political, and economic factors.
If your pilot study influences your biological rationale or hypothesis, you need to describe it in your Introduction. Physics and chemistry are called the 'physical sciences'. This explanation is not necessary if you are reporting the dependence of enzyme activity on pH because you do not need to measure Km and Vmax to get an estimate of enzyme activity.
One way to do this is to test your beliefs against objective reality by predicting the consequences or logical outcomes of your beliefs and the actions that follow from your beliefs.
In the end, you must be your own authority and rely on your own powers of critical thinking to know if what you believe is reliably true.