Exam 3 study guide

Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD LSD acts on neurons which use the neurotransmitter serotonin 5-HT largely because of its structural similarity to the neurotransmitter.

Increase blood pressure. Negative What are the 3 main sources of body fluids? Positive Punishment: weakens learning by giving the subject something that decreases its behavior usually something painful D. Choline What are good sources of iodine? Although nucleus accumbens neurons carry receptors for nicotine this region does not appear to be directly involved in nicotine's reinforcing effects. The precise mechanism involved in these effects is not clear at present. Beverages, foods, metabolic water What stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water? The following list is an summary of the known effects of selected drugs. Decrease in blood pressure What does angiotensin II do? Alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, inhaled solvents In low doses, alcohol appears to act on the brain by stimulating the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex inhibitory , and by becoming incorporated into all neuronal membranes and making them less excitable.

Decrease in blood pressure What does angiotensin II do? Animals including humans will do a lot of work to receive stimulation to the MFB.

The relation to the DA reward system is unknown. It has a great affinity for the 5-HT2 receptor. Long-term abusers of amphetamine and cocaine develop psychosis-like symptoms - hallucinations, paranoia, mood disturbances and repetitive behaviours which led to the proposal of the dopamine theory of schizophrenia. When the activity of a brain under the influence of morphine is viewed by positron emission tomography PET , the cerebral cortex shuts down but underlying centres associated with emotion remain active. Extracellular outside of the cell Which electrolytes have a positive charge? ICSS, descending, myelinated, moderately-fast-conducting component of the brain-reward circuitry that is preferentially activated by electrical intracranial self-stimulation. Animals will press the lever at extremely high rates for delivery of drugs directly into different parts of the reinforcement pathway usually VTA or nucleus accumbens - this is usually accompanied by an increase in DA release at the nucleus accumbens. They increase release from the synapse by inhibiting re-uptake of dopamine - indeed amphetamine appears to actually reverse the re-uptake mechanism causing more DA to be released. Cannabis D 9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC , the active ingredient of marijuana, acts on cannabinoid receptors - the endogenous neurotransmitter which they bind is called anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" meaning bliss , its role is not presently known. Negative Punishment:weakens learning by taking away something that the subject finds reinforcing… note: also decreases behavior. The following substances are not "addictive" in the typical sense--it has been hypothesized that their serotonergic 5-HT effects may modulate the changes in the VTA-NAcc dopamine system. The receptors are particularly dense in the hippocampus responsible for memory processing , the cortex cognitive function and the basal ganglia and cerebellum structures involved in movement control. Positive Punishment: weakens learning by giving the subject something that decreases its behavior usually something painful D. Renin What does renin respond to? The reinforcing effect of nicotine is therefore believed to be due to its effect on the release of DA in the nucleus accumbens.

It has a great affinity for the 5-HT2 receptor. Increase blood pressure.

Spce 610 exam 3 study guide

Antidiuretic hormone What does antidiuretic hormone do? In the DA reward pathway alcohol causes an increase in the firing rate of cells in the ventral tegmental area and a consequent increase in the release of DA at the nucleus accumbens. These are widespread through the brain with few receptors in the brain stem or and spinal cord Herkenham et al. Muscle wasting and nerve damage What is ariboflavinosis caused by? The specific role of DA in this pathway appears to be to decrease activity in the Nucleus Accumbens. The precise mechanism involved in these effects is not clear at present. Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water What responds to decrease in blood pressure? A laboratory preparation can be constructed in which an electrode delivers microlitres of a drug to specific brain regions when an animal presses a lever. Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD LSD acts on neurons which use the neurotransmitter serotonin 5-HT largely because of its structural similarity to the neurotransmitter.

Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water What responds to decrease in blood pressure? The first figure shows the anatomy of the "reinforcement pathway" in a rat brain.

exam 3 study guide psychology

The second and third figures show an exaggerated "close-up" view of a hypothetical synapse between the VTA and the Nucleus Accumbens The Nucleus Accumbens has different abbreviations in the different figures--so be careful when you are studying--it can have either of the following abbreviations: Acc, NAcc.

Renin What does renin respond to?

Cretinism, and hypothyroidism What disorder has mental retardation and stunted growth? Positive Reinforcement: strengthens learning by giving the subject something that increases its behavior usually something desirable B. Beverages, foods, metabolic water What stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water? Interesting most other drugs of abuse actually decrease ACh activity. ICSS, descending, myelinated, moderately-fast-conducting component of the brain-reward circuitry that is preferentially activated by electrical intracranial self-stimulation. Component of thyroid hormones, regulates body temperature and metabolism, and is important for reproduction and growth Fat accumulation in the liver is a sign of deficiency of what nutrient? All drugs with a potential for abuse appear to directly or indirectly increase DA activity in this pathway. The relation to the DA reward system is unknown. Saltwater fish and iodized salt What are two iodine deficiency disorders? Animals including humans will do a lot of work to receive stimulation to the MFB. Cannabis D 9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC , the active ingredient of marijuana, acts on cannabinoid receptors - the endogenous neurotransmitter which they bind is called anandamide from the Sanskrit word "Ananda" meaning bliss , its role is not presently known. What does choline function in? Riboflavin deficiency What are the symptoms of ariboflavinosis? Renin What does renin respond to? Thiamin deficiency What are the symptoms of beriberi?

The receptors are particularly dense in the hippocampus responsible for memory processingthe cortex cognitive function and the basal ganglia and cerebellum structures involved in movement control.

Niacin deficiency Skin, blood, and nerve tissue damages is caused by deficiency of what? Alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, inhaled solvents In low doses, alcohol appears to act on the brain by stimulating the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex inhibitoryand by becoming incorporated into all neuronal membranes and making them less excitable.

Exam 3 study guide

The precise mechanism involved in these effects is not clear at present. Positive Reinforcement: strengthens learning by giving the subject something that increases its behavior usually something desirable B.

The reinforcing effect of nicotine is therefore believed to be due to its effect on the release of DA in the nucleus accumbens.

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Hecht GS PSYC EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE