If children read out loud with speed, accuracy, and proper expression, they are more likely to comprehend and remember the material than if they read with difficulty and in an inefficient way.
For example, "alphabetic writing systems such as the three different ones used for English, Greek, and Russian represent speech sounds or phonemes with letters or letter sequences. At the end of the assessment add up their running record score and file the assessment sheet away.
Teach regularity and irregularity of spelling-to-sound mappings, the patterns of English morphology, rules of grammar and syntax, and the structures of various text genres. These may seem like the same thing, but there is a subtle difference in the two.
Shallow processing involves structural and phonemic recognition, the processing of sentence and word structure, i. Considerations when instructing ELLs in comprehension The NRC, in discussing reading for meaning, or comprehension, explains that the four other Reading First skills are interrelated with the skill of comprehension and also makes the case for native language literacy instruction: "The abilities to hear and reflect on the structure of spoken English words, as required for learning how the alphabetic principle works, depend on oral familiarity with the words being read.
Making reading an active, observable process can be very beneficial to struggling readers. A lack of phonics instruction in early childhood can lead to reading difficulties further down the track.